Bardhaman is a city of West Bengal state in eastern India. It is the headquarters of Bardhaman district.Bardhaman became a district capital of British India. Burdwan is an alternative name for the city, which remains in use since the British period.
The region has an average elevation of 40 metres (131 ft). The city is situated 1100 km from New Delhi and a little less than 100 km north-west of Kolkata on the Grand Trunk Road (NH-2) and Eastern Railway. The chief rivers are the Damodar and the Banka.
Transportation to Bankura
History of Bardhaman
During period of Jahangir this place was named Badh-e-dewan (district capital). The city owes its historical importance to being the headquarters of the Maharajas of Burdwan, the premier noblemen of lower Bengal, whose rent-roll was upwards of 300,000. Bardhaman Raj was founded in 1657 by Sangam Rai, of a Hindu Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mughal Emperors and the British government. The East Indian Railway from Howrah was opened in 1855. The great prosperity of the raj was due to the excellent management of Maharaja Mahtab Chand (died 1879), whose loyalty to the government especially during the “Hul” (Santhal rebellion) of 1855-56 and the Indian rebellion of 1857 was rewarded with the grant of a coat of arms in 1868 and the right to a personal salute of 13 guns in 1877. Maharaja Bijaychand Mahtab (born 1881), who succeeded his adoptive father in 1888, earned great distinction by the courage with which he risked his life to save that of Sir Andrew Fraser, the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, on the occasion of the attempt to assassinate him made by freedom fighters of Bengal on 7 November 1908.
Mahtab Chand Bahadur and later Bijoy Chand Mahtab struggled their best to make this region culturally, economically and ecologically healthier. The chief educational institution was the Burdwan Raj College, which was entirely supported out of the maharaja’s estate. Sadhak Kamalakanta as composer of devotional songs and Kashiram Das as a poet and translator of the great Mahabharata were possibly the best products of such an endeavour. Pratap Chandra Roy was the publisher of the first translation in the world to translate Mahabharata in English (1883–1896). The society at large also continued to gain the fruits. We find, among others, the great rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and Kala-azar-famed U. N. Brahmachari as the relatively recent illustrious sons of this soil. The city became an important center of North-Indian classical music as well.
In the 2011 census, Bardhaman Urban Agglomeration had a population of 347,016, out of which 177,055 were males and 169,961 were females. The 0–6 years population was 25,069. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 88.62. The population of the city has increased very fast in recent time due to migration of many people from the surrounding towns and villages. Most of them find the place favourable for the availability of quality services like education, health and transport.
Burdwan has a multi-cultural heritage. The deuls (temples of rekha type) found here are reminiscent of Bengali Hindu architecture. The old temples bear signs of Hinduism, mostly belonging to the Sakta and Vaishnava followers.
The Kankaleswari Kali is also located in the city of Burdwan. Burdwan witnessed, experienced and survived numerous violent conflicts, mainly due to Mughal,Pashtun and Maratha invaders. The city of Bardhaman was visited by notables of the Delhi Sultanate from Raja Todarmal to Daud Karnani, from Sher Afghan and Kutub-ud-din to Ajimuswan to the future Mughal emperor Shah Jahan while he was still a rebel.Bardhman also has a number of Bengali Christians. Although Christians are a minority, still there are many churches in Barthman.
Tourism in Bardhaman
The Shrine of Sarvamangala
said to contain the remnant of Sati’s body, the umbilicus, is situated here. Aside this, there are quite a number of temples and Sivalingams.
Meghnad Saha planetarium
Bardhaman have a planetarium named after India’s scientist Meghnad Saha. It is the second planetarium of the state after Kolkata’s “Birla planetarium”.
It is the forest office of Bardhaman sub-division. It is at east side of Golapbag. This forest is pointed as sanctuary. This is also called deer park. Deers, tigers, crocodiles, and different kinds of birds make this place beautiful.
Gardens of the Maharaja (Golapbag)
Golap Bag, or the Garden of Rose, of Bardhaman, is a favourite tourist haunt. It is the botanical and zoological garden established by the King Bijoy Chand Mahatab in 1884. Famous botanist Dalton Hooker came there and listed 128 types of trees. At present there are numerous mango, casuarina, eucalyptus and other trees in the garden. The University of Bardhaman also takes classes in the complex. Distance from railway station is about two and half km.
The Grand Trunk Road runs across the city; NH 2 bypasses the city. South Bengal State Transport Corporation and private operators operate buses from Esplanade and Karunamoyee in Saltlake. It takes around 2–21⁄2 hours. Bardhaman is well connected by bus with numerous places all around. Most of the buses arrive and leave from Alisha Bus Stand and Nababhat Bus Stand.
The main Howrah-Delhi rail track passes through Bardhaman, and the city is served by Bardhaman railway station. One can take a local train from Howrah to reach in 2 hrs. One can also travel along the Sahibganj Loop, which branches off, one station after Bardhaman. The narrow gauge line to Katwa is being upgraded (as of 2013) to broad gauge.